"Quarantine" means the process to confirm any animal, animal products or animal production inputs whether diseased or not and put such animal, animal products or animal production or inputs in isolation in specific place, together with or separately for a period of time as prescribed for their inspection.
Nepal is a landlocked country. It has about 1700 km openborders with its neighboring country, India. The open border may facilitate the free movement of animal and thus, may create high risk of entry of infectious animal disease in the country . The infectious animal diseases are the major problem in livestock farming .e.g. FMD in cattle buffalo, PPR in sheep/goat, IBD, Avian influenza in poultry. It is estimated that the loss of livestock due to various diseases, lack of their productivity etc. is causing loss of billions of rupees annually. Thus, it is essential to control existing economically important animal diseases and to prevent the entry of exotic animal diseases to make livestock farming profitable. Animal quarantine system plays vital role in this regard.
In Nepal ,need of animal quarantine was identified during the outbreak of Rinderpest in 1960 A.D. To control the spread of the disease four quarantine check-posts were established in four development regions with the objective of preventing entry of Rinderpest from terai to hill districts.First livestock development project implemented from the assistance of Asian Development Bank helped to establish 20 animal quarantine check-posts in the southern border points of the country where frequent animal movement took place. Later in 1992 A.D., Ministry of Agriculture reorganized the quarantine structure and established one animal quarantine section in the centre with 24 quarantine check-posts in different parts of the country. In 2004 A.D., restructuring of the animal quarantine system was made and eight additional Animal Quarantine Offices were established, Quarantine Check Posts were established under these offices. The central office was renamed as Central Animal Quarantine Office and was strengthened to co-ordinate, monitor and supervise the functioning of animal quarantine offices and their activities and formulate necessary policy and guidelines to strengthen and improve the quarantine system of the country.
Central Animal Quarantine Office is headed by Chief Veterinary Officer; Animal Quarantine Offices are headed by Senior Veterinary Officer and Check posts are headed by Quarantine officer. Altogether 156 staffs are working in animal quarantine system from class 1 to technicians. All the quarantine activities are guided by Animal health and Livestock Service act 2055 and its regulation 2056.